Determining Characteristics and Engine Emission of Steam Generated Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel

M.F.H. Mohd Zahari, D.A. Sugeng, W.J. Yahya, A.M. Ithnin


Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) is an effective method for reducing emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a diesel engine. However, the current approach of producing W/D has its disadvantages in terms of cost and complexity. Therefore, a new approach to produce W/D is developed where water is introduced in vapour state, instead of as liquid, into the fuel. This new method may simplify the emulsion production process as it requires less mechanical parts than any previous non- surfactant emulsion forming methods. The objective of this study is to determine the physical characteristics of steam generated W/D and its engine emission. The characteristics to be determined include the size distribution of water droplets as well as water content. Engine emission will be measured from a 5 kW single cylinder, direct injected, air cooled diesel engine.


Steam; water in diesel emulsion; non-surfactant; engine emission; physical characteristics

Full Text:



Ithnin, A.M. (2015). Real-time water-in-diesel emulsion fuel production system for diesel electric generator (PhD thesis), Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ithnin, A.M., Noge, H., Abdul Kadir, H., & Yahya, W.J. (2014). An overview of utilizing water-in- diesel emulsion fuel in diesel engine and its potential research study. Journal of the Energy Institute, 87(4), 273-288.

Marrone, N.J., Kennedy, I.M., & Dryer, F.L. (2007). Internal phase size effects on combustion of emulsions. Combustion Science and Technology, 33(5-6), 299-307.

Syu, J.-Y., Chang, Y.-Y., Tseng, C.-H., Yan, Y.-L., Chang, Y.-M., Chen, C.-C., & Lin, W.-Y. (2014). Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator’s thermal efficiency and exhaust. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 64(8), 970-978.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2020. All rights reserved.
Publisher: Society of Automotive Engineers Malaysia.
eISSN: 2550-2239
ISSN: 2600-8092